Storage and load managemant potential in buildings

With the expansion of renewable energies such as from wind and sun, the proportion of power plants is increasing, whose electricity production depend on the time of day and weather. Electricity storage facilities and reserve power plants have to step in if renewable energies cannot meet demand. Load management offers a favourable alternative to expensive storage facilities and underutilised reserve power plants. Driven by temporarily high electricity prices, it makes economic sense to temporarily switch off electrical consumers (in buildings e.g. heat pumps, refrigeration machines) when there is a shortage of electricity. If there is an excess supply on the electricity market, electricity prices fall to a low level. It then makes sense to purchase more electricity at these low tariffs. This can be done, for example, by preheating or precooling buildings. This research project investigates which building types and plant technologies are particularly suitable for these load management purposes. The focus is on the one hand on the building fabric with integrated heat transfer systems, and on the other hand on systems for the generation of heat and cooling. The postponement of the operation of building services systems is subject to the condition that the criteria of comfort are always fulfilled in the rooms. Compliance with the comfort criteria can be checked by means of estimates or thermal building simulations. Finally, the project results show how existing buildings need to be adapted and new buildings need to be designed so that they can make their contribution to the integration of renewable energies.